British Army Discounts

Sociology Assignment Help

Sociology Assignment Help at Assignmentfy

Many college and university Sociology students seek for the help of tutors to understand the five basic sociological perspectives. Here at Assignmentfy, we have a team of Sociology specialists who help students looking for assignment help in the field of sociology.

Our writers will help you write essays involving sociology perspectives, which include Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism, Social Action Theory, and Postmodernism.

The following is an overview of what each sociological perspective entails:

Functionalism is a major consensus theory that emphasizes on our shared values and norms, which enable the society to function. Additionally, it holds that societal structures shape individuals.

Marxism notes that the capitalist society is based on inequalities between the working class (proletariat) and the ruling class (bourgeoisie), which creates a constant conflict between the two.

Feminism is a primary conflict theory that holds that the society is based on inequalities between women and men. Besides, feminists believe that men subordinate women, which creates a constant conflict in the society. Moreover, feminists champion for gender equality and the movement of feminism.

Social action theory believes that the society is a construction of meanings and interactions given to it by its members. Furthermore, it describes human behaviour at small-scale, microscopic level.

Postmodernism is an intellectual movement that appeared after the modernity period. The major features of postmodernism include Hyperreality, Decreasing relevance of metanarratives, Globalization, Fragmentation, Cultural diversity, and Consumerism.

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Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality in Sociology

Race, ethnicity and nationality play a major role in sociology. It is important for sociologists to critically evaluate these categories because they are socially constructed and can lead to prejudice, discrimination, and stereotyping if not challenged. Race can be defined as a group that consists of people of the same color and physical appearance. On the other hand, ethnicity refers to the origin of a person, which can be African for instance or American. People can group themselves according to their origin. Nationality refers to the identity of a person according to their country of birth. This can be Americans for people from the United States of America or Chinese for people of China. Sociologists rely heavily on racial, ethnic, and nationality categories to better understand the complex dynamics of human societies. Sociologists can learn more about the ways in which racial hierarchies and disparities are maintained through the study of social constructs like these. In addition, they learn essential information regarding the complexities of intergroup relations and the shifting nature of group identities. Sociologists can also examine the ways in which a feeling of national identity shapes people’s perspectives and actions through the lens of nationality research.


People with the same skin tone, color, hair texture or accent can be defined as persons of the same race. These groupings have been used to define someone’s social status and stand in the community. With the use of races, human population can be divided into smaller groups of people with same characteristics that are easier to manage. The sociologist who conducted the survey found that the variances in the colors of people’s skin had become misunderstood in recent years. White people in many regions of the world treat individuals of black or brown color poorly. This situation occurs in both developed and developing countries. Some of these physical variations are inherited or genetical.


Most of the sociologist believe that ethnicity is part of race. However, it is not the same as race. In addition, its meaning changes with time. Ethnicity is the heritage or culture of a group of people. It involves the traditions, customs, and form of dressing. It is learned from ancestors. It is a bit different from race. Ethnic groups are formed when two or more groups have different historical and social experience.

Commonalities such as race, national origin, tribal heritage, religion, language, and culture can describe someone’s ethnicity.

Whereas someone might say their race is “Black,” their ethnicity might be Italian. Likewise, someone might say their race is “White,” and their ethnicity is Irish.

The US Census Bureau on Race vs. Ethnicity

Race Data

Race data affects the funding of government programs that provide services for specific groups.

The Bureau collects data about race since they seek to ensure that policies serve the needs of all racial groups. It also monitors and ensures that antidiscrimination laws are followed. Discrimination and lack of access to quality mental health care are a major challenge that Black Americans suffer due to racism.

Racial breakdown is determined by how individuals see themselves, and is not “an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically.” People of mixed ancestry can declare this by checking off more than one box on the census form.

The U.S. Census Bureau asks about race and ethnicity to collect information about populations, specifically those who tend to be underserved. This data is used to:

  1. Ensure fairness in the distribution of aid
  2. Enforce compliance with antidiscrimination laws
  3. Develop new programs and funding to address the needs of various groups
  4. Gauge the effectiveness of existing initiatives
  5. Address race and ethnicity issues in obtaining access to healthcare and assistance

The categories listed under “Race” have evolved over the last 200-plus years. Some of the previously used terms are now considered offensive and have been removed. The ways the questions are asked have also shifted. At one point, people were asked for their “race” and “origin,” but this proved too confusing.

The following criteria are now used by the United States Census Bureau to help individuals identify the classification that best describes them:

The Effects of Domestic Violence on White Women

In this context, “white people” refers to anyone who claims European, Middle Eastern, or North African ancestry. Germans, Italians, Lebanese, Cajuns, Chaldeans, Slavs, Iranians, French, Poles, Egyptians, Irish, Britons, and many more are all included in this broad group.

It is important to keep in mind that people’s experiences of domestic abuse within this population might vary widely depending on certain factors, including their culture and social setting. Not all domestic abuse victims are white, and white women facing domestic violence confront specific obstacles and require specialized help.

American of African Descent

The term “Black or African American” refers to anyone who identifies with one or more of the Black racial groupings that are indigenous to Africa. This definition includes everyone who holds such a belief about themselves.

To include all those who claim European, Middle Eastern, or North African ancestry under the umbrella phrase “white people” is an oversimplification. Germans, Italians, Lebanese, Cajuns, Chaldeans, Slavs, Iranians, French, Poles, Egyptians, Irish, Britons, and countless others are all represented here.

African Americans, Jamaicans, Haitians, Nigerians, Somalis, Barbadians, Kenyans, Liberians, Bahamians, South Africans, Ghanaians, and individuals with indigenous ancestry from the Americas (North, South, or Central) who may identify as “American Indian” or “Alaska Native” based on their tribal or group affiliation, are all examples of people who fall into this category. Acknowledging the distinct cultures, histories, and experiences of each subgroup within this larger category is crucial.

The following types of organizations are included in this category:

Blackfeet are a community of Native Americans that identify as Navajo. Mayan (Aztec) Community (Barrow) Location. Nome, Alaska, an Inupiat (Eskimo) Community Asian

Anyone who identifies with more than one of the numerous diverse Asian civilizations that can be found in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent can be referred to as “Asian.”

People who wish to indicate that they are of Asian descent might select one of numerous checkboxes provided for that purpose.

Asians of Chinese, Asian and Filipino descent

Strange and exotic Asians (including Hmong, Khmer, and Pakistanis). Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Polynesians and native Hawaiians Strange and exotic Asians (including Hmong, Khmer, and Pakistanis). Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese

To rephrase, “the category ‘Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander’ includes everyone who identifies with one or more nationalities or ethnic groups that were originally from Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or any of the other Pacific Islands.”

Those who claim Pacific Islander heritage can pick from a diverse set of possibilities.

Pacific islanders (Tonga, Fiji, the Marshall Islands, and others) Samoans, Chamorros, and native Hawaiians.

Some Other Race

If one does not identify with any of the above groups, one can choose “Some Other Race” and input how you identify yourself.

Ethnicity Data

The U.S. Census Bureau asks whether you’re of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish descent. They recognize that individuals who describe themselves as fitting into this category may be of any race.

The Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish categories refer to people who identify with any of the ethnic groups originating from Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Cuba.

Cultures of other Spanish-speaking countries (such as Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Spain, and Honduras).

One mut choose “Not of Hispanic, Spanish, or Latino origin” if they not identify with any of those groups.

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Nationality can be defined as the illtreated behavior by residential people of any nation to the people coming from foreign nations. For example, if one belongs to a country or a state – you have a nationality. A nationality involves the rights, responsibility, and culture of a nation. In addition, nationality depends on numerous factors, such as birth, marriage, citizenship etc.

A national identity is to what extent a person tries to adopt the norms and values of the country or state, such as adopting a country’s traditions. Every country has its own story and journey. The result is a unique history and identity e.g., flag and food. Moreover, heritage exists in a country not for the people, but for advertising purposes. Symbols attract tourism and the byproduct is that citizens adopt the heritage.

Agents of Socialization

The family – individuals learn a common language and initial norms and values. These features tend to have been passed down from generation to generation.

Education – Schools teach a national identity as part of their curriculum e.g., British values and citizenship. It is also part of the actual curriculum e.g., British history – ethnocentric.

Media – The media can act as a tool to disseminate news together. In the UK, media companies will focus on national news rather than foreign. The news will also have a specific format (there is the difference between how news is broadcasted in the UK and Australia).


National identities are becoming diluted and instead, global identities are becoming the norm. Postmodernists attribute this to Globalization, which has created more hybrid and multi nationalities. Negative identities have been formed. In essence, people construct their identity by identifying what they are not rather than what they are. For instance, if I am not British, Scottish, Welsh or Irish then I must be English.

A Crisis of Identity

66% of adults in Wales claim their national identity as wholly or part Welsh.

62% of people in Scotland claimed their identity as being ‘Scottish’ with only 18% of people being ‘Scottish British’ and 8% just ‘British’ (2011 census).

48% of the population of England and Wales chose ‘British’ as their identity.

The Weakening of National Identities


Postmodernists argue that there is a blurring of identities and national cultures are becoming weaker.

Such a situation is linked to the global popular culture, multinational corporations, and widespread migration, among other factors. All this immigration has resulted in an increase in ethnic minorities.

Hall suggests that there is an increase in hybrid and multi nationalities replacing the national ones.


National identities in some instances can be strengthened to oppose globalization e.g., British National Party.

Some ethnic minorities may try to be British to integrate.

The success of South Africa’s national soccer team at the World Cup demonstrates the power of sports to unite a country.

Assimilation describes the process by which members of a minority group gradually embrace the norms, values, and practices of the dominant culture. It is common to see foreign tourists in Canada adopt the language, religion, and culture of the country. They may see their membership in the original minority group weakening as a result.

Government advertisement in 1907 to encourage immigration and settlement of the western provinces.

One of the racial examples is the death of Michael Brown in Ferguson. A white police officer named Darren Wilson shot him six times. Sociologists believed the reason behind it was the convergence among prejudice, stereotype, and discrimination.


The term stereotype can be defined as simple views about a group. Further, it depends on another person, that is, whether he has positive stereotype or the negative stereotype. In maximum number of cases, it is overserved that these stereotypes are always opposite to each other.

The stereotype is more dangerous. It is often seen that stereotyping is the major cause of bulling incidents in schools.


The term prejudice can be defined as the views and ideas about a person without getting any specific information about that individual. Or it may be defined the act of having a particular perspective about a person by getting information from others. In one seminal work, prejudice is defined as phycological process of dividing people in different groups according to their emotional or natural behavior.


Sociologists define discrimination as the adverse actions against people different in religion, culture, health and age. In the 19th century, companies used to discriminate against employees of certain race or ethnicities. They used to hire people based on factors such as which nation or category they belong. Earlier, such situations were very common in US.

Multiple Identity

Before the twentieth century, one more issue faced the society. It was believed that, if an Indian woman marries a non-Indian person, she would immediately lose her Indian status Moreover, her children had to lose the identity also. However, in case an Indian man marries non-Indian woman, he was able to retain his identity and his children could enjoy this status also.


We must reduce the racism based upon the Race, Nationality, and Ethnicity. Changing a gathering of individuals’ partial demeanors and an organization’s bigot activities does not occur incidentally. Lessening racial preference and bigotry is a mind-boggling task that fluctuates from network to network, so it doesn’t loan itself well to basic, 1-2-3 arrangements that can be embraced and connected without having an exhaustive comprehension of the unique circumstance and condition.

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